Chapter 1: Flamingos

What makes flamingos special?

Flamingos can stand one leg, did you know that it’s easier for them but it’s harder for humans? Since flamingos are pink, they don’t do it on their own. There’s pink plankton stuff in the water and they eat it and that’s what makes flamingos pink. Baby flamingos don’t start out pink, they start out gray. They start out puffy and they look like penguin babies because they are gray and puffy.

Where do flamingos live?

Flamingos usually live in mangrove swamps. Did you know that flamingos are a relative to dodo birds? They have the same beaks.

What do flamingo eggs look like?

Flamingo eggs are not the same as chicken eggs. They are like an oval, but no arch on the top. It kind of comes in on the side.

Did you know that flamingos fly? Mostly only swamp flamingos fly because the swamp gives them much more cool and they can sense when something is coming. There’s not that much danger in lakes though. Flamingo groups are called flamboyances. A flamingo is 3 and a half to 5 feet tall. And did you know that lake flamingos make mud and stick nests?

Chapter 2: Golden Pheasants

Did you know that golden pheasants live in Western China? Did you know that golden pheasant eggs are the exact same size and shape of chicken eggs? But they don’t have spots on them.

What do female golden pheasants look like?

They look more brownish-blackish. And the males look blue, red, a little black, yellow, gold, and there’s some grayish on the tail.

Golden pheasants can fly but only a few feet in the air and they prefer to stay on the ground. Golden pheasants eat berries, bugs, and leaves. In the wild golden pheasants live 5 to 6 years. But in people’s homes they can live 15 to 20 years. I think that’s because they get more treatment at houses. And I don’t think they live long in the wild because their are predators coming out to eat them.

What are golden pheasants’ predators?

Their predators are foxes and wild cats. 

Chapter 3: Toucans 

Where do Toucans live?

They live in the Amazon Rainforest.

What is a flock of Toucans called?

It is called a durante of Toucans. I thought durante means together, but it is Portuguese for during. It makes sense because durante and during kind of sound similar.

What do males look like?

Male and females look the same, except male beaks are longer and narrower.

How many years do they live?

They live 12 to 20 years.

Did you know that there are different types of Toucans? There are over 40 different species of Toucan. I would guess there are 60 because they are one of the most popular kinds of birds. All the different types of Toucan species have a big beak. 

Quantum Computing Pros: Power, Medical, and Cybersecurity

Some people hearing about the development of quantum computers might question the need for them: aren’t computers powerful enough already? I disagree. Quantum computers are a whole different type of computing device than the run-of-the-mill computers that we are familiar with. Quantum computers use electrons or photons, which are called qubits (quantum bits. Qubits can exist in multiple states simultaneously based on a specific set of solutions, subjected to incompatible measurements, and even be entangled with other quantum bits. Essentially, instead of just representing 0 or 1, it can represent a value in between, intertwine with other quantum bits, and be able to become measurements that don’t work with other measurements. 

This brings me to why quantum computers are worth making. 1) Quantum computers are more powerful than our current computers. 2) Quantum computers can help advance the medical world. 3) Cybersecurity on quantum computers will be easier than before.

It bears establishing that quantum computers are far more powerful than our current computers. According to Aiswarya PM’s article on Analytics Insight, “Scientists predict that Quantum computing is better than supercomputers as it performs tasks a million times faster.” If Quantum computing is already estimated to be a million times faster than supercomputers, then they must be must faster than current “consumer computers” with the power that is available to non-company buyers. 

To put that into perspective, we can look at IBM’s post on ‘What is supercomputing,’ which states that “Supercomputers can be one million times more processing power than the fastest laptop.” That would mean that you would need 1 trillion of the most powerful laptops (10^12 laptops!) just to make the power of one quantum computer, not accounting for all the cables you would need to make them work together. That’s crazy! With all this power, you might be wondering what you should do with it. The answer is not to get infinite money or whatever else you might really want. The answer lies in many areas upon which we can innovate as a species, two of them being medical advancements and cybersecurity.

Quantum computers can help to create much-needed advancements in the medical world. A New Scientist video titled ‘How quantum computers work: Explaining qubits to quantum superposition’ states:

“principles of quantum mechanics will be able to in the box, in the computer, design new kinds of materials, new chemicals, new drugs, in a way which is much, much faster than having to go through laboratory trial and effort, so we think it could be transformative to attacking… in the future even areas like personalized medicine.” 

This means that we’ll be able to make more effective medicine faster than we could before, benefiting both patients and doctors. The patient will get more effective medicine, and the doctor will be able to provide better services. Whereas if the future didn’t have quantum computers, we might have very complicated viruses that will take a long time to create a cure for. Using supercomputers, we can have quicker, more effective cures for different patients.

Cybersecurity on quantum computers will also be easier than before. In an article on the Interesting Engineering website it says, “[quantum key distribution] has shown us that quantum physics provides us with new tools and recipes to truly safeguard our secrets. … hackers will have a much more difficult time, as they will have to face both complex computational problems and quantum phenomena.” This means that we’ll be able to make more secure and trustworthy ways to store passwords, so we won’t have to worry about things like server breaches, social media hacking, posting fake content, and malware/viruses which lock you out of your computer.  

In my essay, I covered the pros of quantum computing and how it will benefit us in the future. This topic matters to me because I personally have been, and still am, very invested in technology ever since I got my Nintendo Switch as a birthday present. It matters to computer scientists because they’ll be able to run more in-depth experiments. It matters to the world because they will be able to have a more reliable experience when using computers. We should care because it will lead to more powerful, medically advanced, and safer use of computers.

Sources Cited:

PM, Aiswarya. “Quantum Computing: Why Is It Better than Supercomputers?” Analytics Insight, 13 Feb. 2023,,that%20go%20beyond%20classical%20physics. 

“What Is Supercomputing?” IBM,,power%20than%20the%20fastest%20laptop. Accessed 12 June 2023. 

New Scientist. “How Quantum Computers Work: Explaining Qubits to Quantum Superposition.” YouTube, 23 Feb. 2023, 

The Conversation. “Quantum Computers: How Scientists Can Shield against Cyber Attacks.” Interesting Engineering, 14 Jan. 2023,

Cryptography Through The Ages

A lot of people don’t know what cryptography is or what ciphers are; do you? As a brief overview, cryptography is encoding messages, whether in the form of pictures, online messages, or paper messages. It can take the form of symbols translating for letters or scrambling up words, as one might sometimes do without thinking, like children constructing a made-up language. In this essay I will show you how, contrary to some people’s opinions, cryptography was important in ancient society and continues to be helpful in modern society. I will mainly talk about two ideas: how cryptography was used in “ancient times” like in World War II and how common script uses cryptography in its base as coding for privacy.

Imagine you are a war leader. Whether you lead an army of men in 44 BC, or sneak attacks and bombs on enemy territories in 1940, your tactics must be kept secret from prying eyes. One way that secrecy was protected was with encoding messages or cryptography. Viewers of an informational video by the World Science Fair channel on YouTube can hear a detailed explanation of World War II’s Enigma Machine, a cryptography machine that made and decoded code. The video demonstrates how vital cryptography was to both sides of the war effort. If a message was leaked, a whole attack could be jeopardized, or saved. When the opposing side found the code, it would mean the end of a whole branch of communication. Since radios allowed messages to be sent over great distances, using cryptography to send messages became a crucial means for sharing coded information. In the video, Simon Singh states, “Encryptions are important because if you’re going to send messages you need to make sure those messages aren’t necessarily going to be intercepted and stolen.” Radio became that missing piece of the puzzle for securing the messages. Soldiers no longer had to worry about messenger pigeons being physically intercepted; now you worried about the enemy finding your radio signal and hearing it in broad electromagnetic wave light. The Enigma Machine was made in Germany. The Germans would have someone send what the setting or “key” would be, then the machine would scramble the typed letters into different letters; it is a simple enough process but very confusing without the machine. The letters to send would light up, and for the process in reverse, you could decode the messages through the same setting in the machine. Errors were possible, but it was a much safer way to send messages than the alternative, and therefore the Germans’ best shot.

Speaking of best shots, technology has advanced to become more calculated, but more at risk. Encryption has originally been used to make codes, but also for privacy. While this is very advanced and secure with technology and an understanding of code, one could break through the encryption, which is why it must be secure and top secret. The code is so random that no one knows it; only a randomly generated string of numbers holds your latest browser search from being blackmailed. Not every company does this, nor should you be concerned. There is actually comfort in this random string. The possibilities are endless, practically, so unless one stumbles upon your set of code, it is most likely it is a dead person’s code or invalid. Even then, that is only one step of many towards good encryption. As Khan Academy’s video on cryptography mentions, it is generally safe, but there are ways to interfere, and “the more steps and parts there are, the more complicated it is.” As a rough rule highlighting how cryptography has impacted technology, more complex code usually results in fewer errors smoother computers.

While this essay might be short, there’s more to sort. In the sources list you will find the videos mentioned, to continue your cryptography search, sadly this is no verse. Past and old, present and current, future and new all have you. I leave you with the same question I started with; a lot of people don’t know what cryptography is or cyphers are. Do you?


  1. Polyalphabetic cipher | Journey into cryptography | Computer Science | Khan Academy. April 11, 2012, YouTube: Khan Academy
  2. The Enigma Machine Explained. May 14, 2013, YouTube: World Science Fair

My Life With Tourette’s 

Hey, my name is Lester. One thing you should know about me is that I have Tourette’s Syndrome. If you are oblivious to the term then let me explain. Quite frequently I have the urge to move my elbows back. Not all people have that specific tic but mainly everyone’s Tourette’s are unique. I also have Heterochromia. It’s not exactly an obstacle but it teams up with my Tourette’s to make me miserable. If you don’t know, Heterochromia is the condition in which you have two different colored eyes. It may seem like a cool thing but when you have a little social anxiety, it’s a bit smothering with all the attention.

I’m moving to a new school on Wednesday and of course I’m going to be nervous. Who wouldn’t be? I’m afraid of what the new kids will think of me. My sisters say that middle school can be difficult if you have no friends. Well, nothing like a good old fashion entree of atrocious sleep with a side of nightmares. Do you want to know how the nightmare went? Well of course you do if you read this far.

I was running through the forest as a ninja (don’t judge, ninjas are cool and you can’t deny it), when we approached a large lake with a wicked looking axolotl/octopus in it. You know when people usually look at an axolotl they think: Awww, It’s so ugly it’s cute!

Except today it wasn’t cute. Just plain unbearable ugliness. No offense, of course. “It looks like my mom when I forget to clean my room,” joked my dream friend, who of course is also a ninja.

“Ha, good one,” I laughed. I wish I had friends like this in the real world. So you may be thinking: Wait, isn’t this story from your POV? Why did you say real world? Do you know this is a dream? Well, yes, yes, and yes. I know this is a dream. The reason I stay here is because, A. I like being a ninja, and B. I have friends here. I know it seems incredibly sad but, who cares. The other ninjas and I surrounded the creature and took turns throwing shurikens at it. After scratching and chipping away at the monster’s body and patience, it left.

We all sighed in relief, but our victory was cut short by a guttural shriek. I looked back at the lake to see a giant octopus with eyes the size of trampolines rise out of the water. Oh, dear, I thought. That’s not an octopus. That’s the head of a mythical beast! I think incredulously. Oh I know this thing! Oh what’s its name? Kachulu? No, that’s not it. Uthulu? No, it has the letter c in it. Cthulhu! Yes, that’s it! Darn, I’m probably reading too many fantasy stories.

Well, in the book Cthulhu is an immortal being that is a tribrid between an octopus, man, and a dragon. You know what, I’m going to bail before things get ugly. I pinch myself for eight seconds, and surprise, surprise, I woke up.

It was seven A.M. on Wednesday, The day of dread. Yay. Darn, I should’ve convinced mom to let me stay homeschooled this year, I thought. Well, there’s no award for the most regret in thirty seconds, so I should probably get dressed and eat breakfast. Luckily, my mother laid my outfit out last night for me to wear. I got on my clothes and headed downstairs. When I got to the kitchen, I saw no evidence that someone was here so I guessed I was the only person up. I knew my father would come down soon so I just started making a fried egg with toast. I got a pan and put it on the stove. I sprayed cooking oil on the pan, then proceeded to try to crack the egg. It was a bit difficult to crack the egg on the pan as I kept ticing and dropping the egg. Luckily after three eggs, I finally got it in the pan. I then grabbed a slice of toast and lodged it in the toaster oven. After five minutes of waiting for both to finish, I put my meal on a plate and headed to the table to eat. The meal was delicious but it was all the more better knowing that I made it.

As predicted, my father appeared through the doorway wearing a button-up shirt with a tie and some nice brown pants with a belt. He was also carrying a briefcase that he briefly set on the table to get breakfast. He was on a call so I knew not to bother him. I ate my breakfast in silence as he scoured the fridge, phone wedged between his head and his shoulder. He found some leftover pasta from last night’s meal and ran to the door. He opened the door and walked through but before he could close the door, he peeked his head through the doorway and said, “Good morning, Lester! I’ll see you after school!”

Just like that, my dad’s car whisked out of the driveway and headed towards the street. That’s going to be me soon, I think gloomily. As I finish up my breakfast, I take a glimpse of the clock. Half past seven, I thought. I should probably get packed and ready for school. I put my plate and utensils in the dishwasher and headed back upstairs to brush my teeth.

After a firm and steady two minutes of brushing, I washed my face and headed back downstairs to go to school. I packed my school bag with all the necessary supplies with my water bottle and lunch money. I grab a helmet and get my bike. My school was only a quarter of a mile away from my house, so it wasn’t a hassle getting there. As I rode my bike all the way to school, I saw a lot of people talking and socializing in the school courtyard. I saw a few students glance at me, then whisper to their friends. I could already tell what they were saying, Oh my gosh, look at that freak riding his bike!

I try to ignore the looks, yet a part of my brain is already contemplating how much I’m going to be laughed at. Well, no point in attempting to see the future if you live in the present. Fortunately there was a biking rack where I could simply set my bike down. Unfortunately my tourettes were making it extremely difficult to set it down because I would always move my elbows back and drop the bike. I could already imagine what I look like right now, flailing my elbows while others laughed and mocked me.

After an agonizing ten minutes of embarrassment, I finally got the bike locked in the rack. I made my way to the courtyard where all the other kids were. I had a few people walk up to me. “Woah dude, cool eyes,” they’d say. I’d mutter a “thanks,” and then walk away. I found a nice cozy corner where I could just mind my own business. Ring! Ring! Ring! The noise was a little obnoxious but at least it caught everyone’s attention. We all clustered together to get through the door. This is where my Tourette’s became an issue. Every two minutes I’d hear a “Hey, who elbowed me?” 

Oh shoot, that was me! I’d think. After squeezing through the doorway, (with little casualties) I got a first glimpse of the monotonous school. The principal’s office was just to the right, with pictures of every teacher. Everything here was out of a picture show, the walls were white and the floor was marble black. The only thing with color here was probably my beige school bag.

I saw all the students head towards a stairwell with, you would not believe your eyes,  navy blue stairs! As the other students and I headed up the stairs a girl with rich brown hair approached me. “Hey, I really like your eyes,” she said.

“Thanks,” I muttered. “I’m Lester by the way,” I introduced myself. 

“I’m Stacy, pleasure to meet you,” she replied formally. We walked in awkward silence for a bit.

“You know,” Stacy started, “a lot of kids here would purposely make a big deal if they had Heterochromia. They’re all attention seeking brats. It’s a nice change of pace to see that you just keep quiet about your condition.”

I soaked her statement in while remaining silent. We were approaching our class now and Stacy and I would have to go our separate ways.

“Alright, well I’ll see you in writing,” I said. She simply waved her hand goodbye, and then went across the hall. Wow, that was the quickest friend I’ve ever made, I thought. For now I have math, and I’m pretty strong in this subject. This should be a breeze, I thought. Although I’m in honors math, and this should’ve been difficult, it was in fact a breeze. I flew through the lesson like a soaring falcon. The lesson mainly consisted of easy algebraic equations, in word problems. Although the other students in my class were having some trouble keeping up. Weird, I thought. Their minds are probably a little rusty from summer break.

After completing the lesson and being assigned homework, I headed onto my next class, writing. I was excited about this class mainly because I love writing, as it’s one of my biggest hobbies. The walk to writing class was a bit long, as it was all the way down the four hundred foot hallway, but at least it gave me enough time to catch up with Stacy.

 I started my walk down the hallway, frantically looking for Stacy. My search ended when I felt a tap on my shoulder. 

“Oh, there you are!” I exclaimed. “I’ve been trying to find you for like, eight minutes!”

“Oh please,” Stacy rolled her eyes. “You were only looking for two minutes.” 

We walked down the hallway discussing how our classes went. I told her about how literally nobody could keep up in math class, and she told me that no one had the slightest idea what they were doing in geography class. By now we were approaching the doorway to writing class so we stopped talking. When Stacy and I walked into the classroom there was a U formation of the desks. 

The seats had our name on it, and unfortunately, Stacy was across the classroom. We began our first unit, poetry. Now, I didn’t exactly hate the subject but I didn’t love it either. Judging by the looks of my fellow classmates, including Stacy, they didn’t like it either. The lesson consisted of writing any type of poem, and then submitting it to the teacher to get checked. Let me take this time to tell you that the teachers here were brutally honest. They didn’t hesitate to tell you that your work was trash.

This made me all the more determined to have a good poem. The poem I’ll be doing is a haiku. I wrote for around ten minutes just figuring out how my words would correlate with the  strict five syllables, seven syllables, five syllables. Here’s how it goes:

Summer Haiku

I jump in the pool

Summer vacation is great

I love the summer

I know, I know. A tad bit lazy but it’s still pretty good. At least I think so. Now time to face judgment. I walk up to where the teacher is sitting. When the teacher saw me she said, “Hello, what do you have for me?” Her tone was firm yet a hint of malevolence was there. I gave the poem to my passive aggressive teacher. Her eyes scanned over the paper most definitely looking for mistakes.

When she turned back to me she said, “Hmph, that’s the best one all day.” I had a feeling that she said that in a bad way. As if everyone else’s paper were so bad that when a half-decent poem is submitted, It was the best one yet. I ignored the feeling and sat down back at my desk. For the remainder of the class I just wrote a story. The story was about my dream and how I was a ninja.

When I looked up from my notebook I glanced at the clock to see that the class was over, and everyone was packing up. Our next subject was art. Our lesson was about painting modern art. I drew a picture of Cthulhu, the beast I saw in my dream. I painted the lake and the octopus head rising from the water.

When our teacher came over and examined all of our paintings, She gaped at mine. “Oh wow,” she praised. “That’s fantastic!”

“Thanks,” I muttered.

When I finished my painting, I thought that it looked pretty good. I captured the reflection of the stars on the water pretty well. I went out into the hall to put my painting on the drying rack. When I walked back into the classroom, I saw that everyone once again was packing up. I knew that our next period was lunch so I began making my way towards the cafeteria.

I had my lunch money in hand right now so I could get a salad, or something else nutritious. I saw Stacy waiting at a table. I walked over to my new friend and sat down.

“That line is crazy,” Stacy stated. “A bit obnoxious, don’t you think?”

“A little bit,” I agreed. “I’ll wait for the line to die down before I get lunch.”

Stacy and I waited while chatting about classes, strict teachers, and ridiculous classmates. When the line died down Stacy and I got up to go get lunch to be stopped by a tall kid. I swear to the grass below my feet, if this guy seriously asks to take my darn money I will-

“Give me your lunch money nerds,” he says in a cocky voice. Stacy looked him up and down before bursting out laughing.

“Lunch money! Oh my gosh James, do you not read any books?” She laughs. “Because that’s the most cliche line I’ve ever heard. You’re so yesterday, kid. Get a better line!”

I feel a bit uncomfortable as Stacy brushes past him gracefully, takes my arm, and yanks me over to the food area. Stacy was still hysterically laughing, so I took the chance to get a Caesar salad with croutons, carrot strips, and cucumbers with Italian dressing on top. Stacy got chicken tenders and fries.

We headed back to the table and enjoyed our lunch talking about weird dreams. I told her about my dream about Cthulhu, and she explained that once in her weird dream she was talking to salmon about sushi. 

We finished up our lunch just as the teachers told us to go back up to class. For the last period, I had science. We began talking about chemistry and chemical reactions. It was also cool because I got to use beakers and different elements! I mean, who knew that if you added potassium iodine, hydrogen peroxide, and dish soap you’ll get an awesome foamy reaction!

I kept adding elements until the stereotypical science explosion blew up in my face. Who knew that if you added potassium permanganate with alcohol you’ll get an explosion! It was a tad bit embarrassing but mainly everyone wanted to know what combination I used to get the explosion. I finished that class in a hurry with a lot of homework. I only then realized that the school day was complete. I stuffed all of my homework into my large bag. And when I put my bag on, It was the actual equivalent of fifty pounds! As I took out my bike from the rack, dropping it frequently because of my tourettes, I got on it and peddled home. As I approached my house I thought to myself,

Maybe this school won’t be so bad after all.


Nature is a very important part of living. Once, I was at the beach with my friends. It was a nice sunny day. My friends and I had just gotten out of the water and put on our coveralls when my best friend Mila said, “Look, it’s a balloon in the ocean!” I saw a Happy Birthday balloon in the ocean. “Let’s go get it before it goes too far!” I said, taking off my dress from over my bathing suit. We ran into the ocean and got the balloon, then threw it into the trash.
A few days ago I learned that it takes 450 years for a balloon to decompose. I was happy that I had saved the balloon from the ocean, where it might have killed marine wildlife.
Nature helps us in many ways. It was how we sustained ourselves when we were cave people. Nature is a part of life and some people don’t pay much attention to how it’s being treated. In this essay, I will be going over how the earth is being affected by humans including ocean pollution, air pollution, animal extinction, and climate change.

                                   Ocean Pollution

Every day more and more trash is disposed of into the ocean. Every 60 seconds a whole truckload of plastic goes into the ocean. The ocean is holding 5.25 trillion pieces of trash. Of that trash, 15% goes to beaches, 15% floats, and 70% sinks to the depths of the ocean, killing and strangling marine wildlife.
This needs to stop. Can you believe that on some beaches the shores are covered in trash? You are lucky to be at a beach where trash isn’t flooding every nook and cranny. You might think “why aren’t we just preserving the ocean then?” Well, we are, but only less than 8% of the ocean is actually preserved. On the other hand, there are many people, like Oceana, Sea Legacy, and Ocean Conservancy, that are in the ocean right now picking up trash!

                                    Air Pollution

We breathe oxygen every day, right? Well, only 21% of the air is actually oxygen. Everything else is Co2, nitrogen, neon, and hydrogen. If we don’t stop air pollution, then humans will die of polluted air. We need clean air to survive, and only 21% of our air is clean. If we keep pumping carbon dioxide into the air, the air will be full of Co2. However, in places like Las Vegas, you can see a whole dark cloud of Co2 and dirty air on top of it.
People breathe O2 and let out Co2. Trees produce O2 and take in Co2. We are cutting down 2,400 trees per second worldwide! There might be no trees left in the future, which means no clean air. But there are many organizations like Team Trees that plant thousands of trees every year.

                                  Animal Extinction

Have you heard of a panda farm or a tiger farm? Probably not, but not because they don’t exist! That is a huge issue because these are endangered species, about to go extinct. People think their fur looks nice, or they think it would make a nice mantel, so they kill these species for a coat that they will outgrow in six months. They need a farm that doesn’t kill them, but just preserves them. We keep slaughtering these animals for fun, not thinking about the devastation that we are causing. We need to preserve these creatures! Some scientists are collecting DNA for these endangered creatures so when they are extinct they can try to recreate the creature. But they wouldn’t need to do this if the creature wasn’t going extinct in the first place. We need to save these peace-loving creatures! At least some zoos are trying to preserve and tend to these animals that are going extinct.

                                   Climate Change

The climate is changing the world. In some places, it is hotter or cooler than normal. That is all because of climate change. In New York, it normally snows around 12 days per year, but in 2019 it only snowed eight times, and in 2020 it only snowed ten! During the summer, New York normally tops 85 degrees, but one day this year it was almost 100 degrees. In parts of Africa, it is so hot, elephants have to walk miles just for a drink of water. Climate change is also affecting crop growth. There are low supplies worldwide because climate change affects plants. Plants can’t grow properly, so they die, leaving nothing to harvest and send to supermarkets. In hot areas, the water loss is making people that already have little to drink walk miles and miles for just a few buckets of dirty water. Climate change is changing the weather patterns, making it hard to decide if it’s going to rain, snow, or be sunny.
Climate change is mainly because of air pollution, which changes how clouds move so places that need water get a smaller amount. There are scientists that are helping people in Africa by giving them filters, so that when they get the water they can make it clean and drinkable.


In conclusion, nature is very important, but we are not taking good care of it. It’s so important for us to fix the environment. We would be lost without nature, or dead. This topic is important to me, because every day I walk around seeing over-flooded trash cans and people throwing out plastic bags, not caring where it’s going to land, and I think it’s disgusting. This topic is important to the community, because it will open the eyes of people who don’t care if one day trash will flood the streets, or if one day we need to wear oxygen tanks and masks because of polluted air. This topic is important to the world, because if you looked at the earth in outer space, where it would be green, lush, blue, and vibrant, it would be brown or light blue. You should care, because soon when you look at the earth from space it will be dry and dirty from trash. This is serious, not a small issue that can be blown over!

Why School Should be Shorter

Ever since Covid-19, this is what my online school day looks like. We have a few online classes, and then we work on a couple of assignments. This ends up being only three to five hours. Right now, teachers mostly grade students based on participation instead of assignments. If teachers think that this is enough to grade students, then when we go back to school, we should just do the same thing in person. I believe that school should be four hours a day.

One reason why schools should only be four hours a day is because students can get tired. If students get tired, then they can’t focus on their work. Here’s a story. One day, I got really tired at school. My teacher gave me an assignment and I forgot how to do the work. It took a couple of minutes to remember how to do it. That proves that if students are tired they cannot complete assignments as well as they normally would. If students can’t focus on their work, then they will not be able to complete assignments. If school was shorter, students would be able to focus and get better grades. Also, if students got home earlier every day, then they would be able to get some more sleep. Finally, students would have more time to do homework and to study a little bit more as well.

 Something related to students getting tired is students being stressed. The way that tiredness affects students is different than the way stress affects students. Tiredness affects students mentally, while stress affects students physically. Students could get stressed out because of all the time they have to spend in school. If school were shorter, students would have more time to relax and to find out what relieves their stress. I have asthma. Ever since I have been home from school, I have been having fewer asthma attacks. I don’t know if this is because of less stress, but there is definitely some relation. According to, “Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset.” This proves that if you are stressed at a young age, then you have a risk of developing asthma. Stress also weakens your immune system. According to, “When we’re stressed, the immune system’s ability to fight off antigens is reduced. That is why we are more susceptible to infections.” This proves that if you are stressed out, then you are more prone to diseases. This also proves that when we go back to school in September, schools should let students go home early. If they let students go home early, then students have a lower chance of getting the coronavirus because they will be less stressed. If the students are less stressed, then their immune system will not be as weak as it would be if they were stressed. There are many things that students could do to relieve stress, and they would have more time to do these things if school were shorter. One of those things is coloring/painting. Another option would be extracurricular activities.

Finally, school should only be four hours because students will have more time to socialize and/or do extracurricular activities. If students get more time to do these things, then they 

will become more social instead of sitting around studying all day. Students will also be able to learn during extracurricular activities. According to, “Some students worry that participating in extracurriculars may take away too much time from their schoolwork, thus hurting their grades; however, extracurricular activities can actually improve your grades and your outlook on school in general.” According to this, extracurricular activities also improve the way students feel about school. Ever since I’ve started extracurricular activities, such as swimming, I feel like school is interesting because I have a larger variety of activities now.

In conclusion, school should be shorter because it is important for students to get time to enjoy themselves, as well as being good students. It is important because this all impacts the future lives of students all around the world. Students also get to spend more time with their parents, which impacts their future by showing them what life will be like when they get older. This topic is very important, but now this topic is especially important because of Covd-19. Maybe Covid-19 will also show us that adults’ work days should be shorter as well.

Straws Are Bad


In this story, you will learn a lot about what damage plastic does to the earth. Did you know that by 2050, there will be more plastic than fish in the oceans? In this story, you will learn what kinds of straws are bad, why they are bad for land animals, sea creatures, and humans, and also my experience with straws.

What are straws?/Why are they bad?

Straws are long pieces of plastic, bamboo, or wood that are used to be able to drink a liquid from a tall glass without having to tip your cup. Straws are bad because they kill animals and humans.              

Land animals

 Straws are bad because they kill animals, plants, and humans too. The reason why plastic kills living animals is when people drop or throw their straws in the trash cans, streets, and woods where they just go to landfills or get eaten by bugs or bears.

Sea creatures and Humans

The way that plastic kills sea life is like how it kills forest animals. It just gets eaten by sea creatures, which is even worse than when a land dweller/animals that lives on land do. The reason why it is worse is because we humans don’t eat land animals that are available to plastic, while we eat almost every type of fish that is discovered to humans. And when fishermen catch the fish to sell to companies, the fish caught sometimes have small pieces of plastic in it. The way that it kills humans is when humans eat the fish, they can choke on the small pieces of plastic.

My experience with straws.

My experience with straws is that when I traveled throughout Southeast Asia  for six months I saw a lot of plastic straws and other types of plastic like plastic bags and plastic bottles all over like in the streets or in the ocean. Another sad story is that when I was snorkeling, I saw a bunch of small fish chasing a single piece of plastic!!!

How we can fix it

The reason we can fix this problem is whenever you have the chance to turn down a straw, do it and dont be scared to say no to a waiter or waitress. Another way you can fix it is that whenever you see a piece of garbage, pick it up. Here’s one of my favorite sayings: “The little things are what counts.”

My Most Important Object

One object that means a lot to me is a plush toy that a father from my church gave me once. It means a lot to me because it is a little Jesus and he gave it to me when I was five years old. It has sandals. They are little brown sandals (my brother ripped one off) and it also has a little white crown. It also reminds me of the father because he is in Europe. The toy feels fluffy. The toy smells great (obviously when you wash it it smells like soap). Right now, I have it in my bed and I don’t let anyone touch it.

Treating Things with Respect

My Black Wii U could hold 32 GB of space. It cost $300 plus the tax, which I know was about $326. It felt very smooth and looked like a box that you put the disk in and a pad that looked like a switch. When you played with it a lot, it would overheat and smell like fire. You could also hear a whirring sound when you used it too much. I never tasted it, but it must taste like Japanese plastic since the Wii U was made in Japan.

I distinctly remember that bleak December. December of 2014. I told my dad I wanted the Wii U in the past few months. Then, a few days before Christmas, my dad showed me what he got me for Christmas. You guessed it, a black Wii U. I had not opened it yet because it was for Christmas. He did not open the box, but it did not have any Christmas wrapping, so I saw the big letters that spelled Wii U on the box. I thanked my dad for the gift that has not been forgotten, even now. Sometimes on the weekends, I use it in the morning. It is my first ever gaming console I ever got. Therefore it must not be trashed like most people did when they got a Nintendo Switch. The reason I say this is because there was this YouTube video.

People say that the Wii U was one of Nintendo’s biggest failures, but I consider this a lie. It is honestly one of the best consoles in history and is considered great.

I still use it to play Mario games from the 80’s, 90’s, and one from 2014. I did not just trash it when I got my Switch. I just stopped using it for a while. It is not lost, or framed, or squished behind something, and of course, not lost. It is right next to the TV in the living room. Every time you are watching TV in the living room, you can see it right next to the TV plugged into the power outlet there. It still looks brand new, because I clean it to take off the dust. I had also taken much care of it when I got it up until now because it is not damaged. So, concluding this piece, my Wii U is a cherished item in my home. People treat it with care, I treat it with care, and it will stay right next to the TV for as long as… who knows? It is the best console I own. Then goes the Switch, then the PS4, and last is something that is not mentioned, which is the PS3. That is a completely different story to be told, but the Wii U is the best. 10/10 object. 

Elijah’s Memoir

I remember I had a snow globe. It was from Canada, and it said Niagara Falls, and it had a waterfall. Every time I shook it, it was like sparkly confetti falling inside. On the letters, there were sharp corners but a smooth ball shaped surface. There were buildings and boats. It doesn’t smell or sound like anything, but it is glass, so if you drop, it will make a pretty loud sound like shattering ice.

I was on the plane with my mom and sister on our way to Canada. When we got off, the first thing I did was beg my mom to take me to the gift shop. So she did, and the whole time my eyes were planted on the snow globe. I didn’t have to say anything. My mom already caught on to what I was looking at. After the gift shop, my sister and I went up this tall building in an elevator, and there was a glass part of the floor where you could see the city. My mom didn’t come because she had claustrophobia.

When we got to the glass floor, I was scared to go on it, so I was clenching my globe so it wouldn’t fall, and my sister was there right beside me.

My snow globe said Niagara Falls, and I asked my mom, “Is that a place?”

She said, “Yes.”

I said, “Well, can we go there?”

“Yes,” she replied. “But change into your swim trunks.”

We got there. It was a beautiful sight to see. I looked back at the buildings, and they were the same as the ones in the snow globe. The sun was beaming on my face while I was in cool water. The sun was setting, so it was time to go to our hotel room, although my sister stayed a couple of minutes because she wanted to take pictures with the setting sun.

When we got to the room, I put my globe in a safe place where I could see it every time I woke up. It was like my energy source. When I see it, I feel like I can do anything. If I feel like it could be a bad day, I would put the snow globe in my bag like a good luck charm. I thought the only way the luck would work is if I shook it three times. 

My Bracelet

My bracelet is light, colorful, bright, round, and the colors are like mountains going around and around. This bracelet brings up a lot of memories that will always stay in my heart and will always be remembered.

When I got my bracelet, it was unexpected, so I asked my mom, “What is this?” ¿Qué es esto?

She responded, “It’s something your dad left for you.” Es algo que tu papa dejo para ti.

I was in shock and didn’t know what to do. I loved it for who it was from, what it looked like, and because it would make me feel closer to my dad.

    The emotional feeling could be sadness because it reminded me of my dad because he had passed away when I was only five.

 The bracelet is on my arm right now, and it will always be there no matter what. I like that I will never feel like my dad is not still there with me.

The Tundra Rulers

The tundra is a place where two predators rule. The gray wolf and the wolverine. Although gray wolves eat wolverines, scientists have found out new things about gray wolves’ strategies to catch wolverines — they are called offenses. An offense is like a defense to catch your prey. 

Wolverines eat berries, moose, and elk. Wolverines sometimes hide in the snowy thicket. So when the predator comes near, the wolverine pounces, and then if the prey is taken by surprise, it will run away. 

Gray wolves eat wolverines, elk, and moose. The gray wolf’s predators are brown bears, polar bears, and cougars. Gray wolf pups are the size of fennec foxes. Wolverine pups are the size of baby kit foxes. The gray wolf is vulnerable because it is endangered. The wolverine has a close predator/prey relationship to the gray wolf. 

Sometimes gray wolves and wolverines have fights for prey. When a gray wolf sees a wolverine hunting, for example running towards an elk, it will also run to the elk, and whoever snatches it first gets to take it back to its den or burrow. 

Wolverines dig burrows underground. Gray wolves, on the other hand, have their babies in dark dens where predators can’t see anything — even if they have good night vision. But the wolves make their way around by sniffing. A gray wolf can recognize its den by its paw prints, which are unique and different from wolverine prints. Wolverine prints are the size of flat fossils. Gray wolf prints are the size of large stones or rocks, bigger than a flat fossil.

Gray wolves hunt in cold areas because they’re built for the cold and have a lot of fur and big paws to walk in deep snow. But wolverines prefer warm places and have small paws and light fur.  A wolverine’s fur is orange-ish and black. Wolverines are solitary. Gray wolves are not. They hunt in packs. Wolverines and gray wolves live in Canada.

The wolverine is a relative of the gray wolf and also its prey because gray wolves eat wolverines. They are both rulers of the tundra!

Endangered Turtles

Turtles have been around for more than 100 million years, making them some of the most ancient creatures on earth. They even survived the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Though turtles can live for 80 years or more, they are still in trouble in terms of population in current times. Turtles are endangered, and that fact could affect the entire ecosystem if they go extinct. Though many of the problems for turtles are caused by other species, most are caused by humans.

Turtles face many kinds of danger from the time that they are born to the time of their deaths. Every year, thousands and thousands of hatchling turtles appear from their nests along the US South Shore and follow the Atlantic sea. Sadly, scientists estimated that only 1,000 to 10,000 of these turtles live to adulthood. The physical obstacles encountered by turtles are astounding. Nowadays, four of the seven kinds of turtles are endangered, one is critically endangered, and two are vulnerable. Throughout their life, sea turtles face many challenges that are made by both animals and humans. Predators such as raccoons, shellfish, and ants attack eggs and hatchlings, even at the nest. Once they grow, hatchlings create bite-sized meals for birds, shellfish, and many other predators in the sea. After growing to maturity, however, sea turtles are not faced with as many predator attacks except for the occasional shark attack. Yet, these predators are not the largest cause for sea turtle populations plummeting toward extinction.

Several different humans actions are responsible for turtle endangerment. Commercial fishing is one of the many things that humans are doing to cause turtles to be endangered. According to, 250,000 sea turtles are accidentally captured, injured, or killed by US fishermen each year. Many of these injuries and deaths take place while turtles are migrating through fishing areas. The turtles either get caught on the hooks because they are attracted to the bait, or they get caught in fishermen’s nets. Another thing that people are doing to affect turtle endangerment is that sometimes people kill turtles to eat their meat. says that, “in many coastal communities, especially in Central America and Asia, sea turtles have provided a source of food.” During turtles’ nesting seasons, turtle hunters watch the beaches at night to look for female turtles looking to lay their eggs. These people will often wait until the female has laid her eggs, and then they will kill her and take the eggs.

Even less direct human actions can affect the turtles. For example, sea turtles mistake plastics and other garbage as food, (such as jellyfish) and ingest it. According to, “hundreds of thousands of sea turtles, whales, and other marine mammals, and more than 1 million seabirds die each year from ocean pollution and ingestion or entanglement in marine debris.” Marine debris is man-made waste that is directly or indirectly disposed of in oceans, rivers, and other waterways. This mistake causes blockages within the turtles digestive system and eventual death. The waste that is dropped into the ocean tends to accumulate in something called a gyre. A gyre is an area of slow spiraling water and low winds. In the Pacific Ocean, there is a gyre called the North Pacific Gyre. Within this gyre, there is something called “The Great Garbage Patch.” This “garbage patch” is approximately the size of Texas with plastic debris extending about six meters under the water. It’s estimated that this “plastic island” contains 3.5 million tons of trash. This island shows how much plastic is collecting in the ocean and the amount of plastic going into the ocean is rising each year.

Though turtle extinction is a major problem, there are many things that we can do to save the turtles. The first thing that the average person can do is to reduce the amount of garbage you produce and clean up trash you see on the beach. By doing this there will be a lot less garbage in the ocean and a lot fewer turtles who die from a mistake of thinking a plastic bag is a jellyfish. Another thing that can be done for the turtles is to remove recreational equipment like chairs and umbrellas and to fill in holes and knock down sea castles in the sand ( When these things are on the sand, they become obstacles for the nesting turtles and for the baby turtles to get to the ocean. A third thing that can be done to help turtles is to turn out all visible lights from the beach and avoid beach bonfires. According to, “sea turtle hatchlings use light and reflections from the moon to find their way to the water at night.” That means that if they see the artificial light or the light from the fire, they will go toward it thinking it is the ocean. Finally, a chemical reduction can be used to help turtles. Even if you don’t know it, the chemicals you use on your lawn and in your home can somehow wash away into the ocean, killing plants and animals. Instead, use alternate products like biodegradable solutions.

It is important for people to know about the problem of endangered sea turtles and learn how to fix it. If people don’t help turtles soon, they will go extinct. If sea turtles go extinct, it will damage the ocean’s ecosystem. For example, sea turtles play an important role in keeping the seagrass bed healthy. When green sea turtles graze, they increase the productivity and nutrient content of seagrass blades. Without constant grazing, seagrass beds become overgrown and decompose and provide a good habitat for the growth of slime molds. Finally, if turtles went extinct, this would also affect humans. If there were no more turtles, then the jellyfish population would grow because sea turtles eat jellyfish. If this population grows, these jellyfish will travel in swarms across the ocean and do many things to affect us. For example, jellyfish may go to areas where there are a lot of fish and sting all of the fish, affecting what people eat and the fisherman’s catch. Therefore, the fishermen will not have any fish to sell, and they will lose a lot of money. Another thing that would happen if jellyfish population grows is that jellyfish may clog nuclear plant cooling water systems all over the world. This shows that our ecosystem is fragile, and we need to protect it. 


“Information About Sea Turtles: Threats to Sea Turtles.” Sea Turtle Conservancy,

Noaa. “What Can You Do to Save Sea Turtles?” NOAA Fisheries, 6 June 2016,

“Ocean Plastic.” SEE Turtles,

Pattavina, Peter. “Sea Turtles.” Defenders of Wildlife,
“Tour De Turtles Spotlight on the Race’s Biggest Competitors: The Leatherbacks.” Sea Turtle Conservancy, 13 Sept. 2016,

Save Natural Resources – Before It Is Too Late!

Some people may think we have tons of resources on this planet, so we don’t really need to save them. Actually, we do need to save and wisely use our natural resources before we run out of them. Some resources, like oil and water, are re-generated, while others, like vegetables, organic meat, and sugars are being depleted. Some people are too optimistic, believing that new technology, such as 3D printing, may save our lives, and artificial food may replace our real food. I have a different opinion: saving natural resources is a must for now and also for the future even though technology develops rapidly.

Per Google research, one of the most important natural resources, oil, will only last 47.3 more years! Oil is needed for many applications, such as making plastics and lubrication. Oil, gas, and gas condensate are among the most important energy sources in the world. One thing we know for sure is that we need oil — currently around 90 million barrels of crude oil are used a day. Oil is used for many other purposes other than fuel for energy or transport. If we don’t save oil, our lives will be much less convenient and after 47.3 years we will have to use other resources to replace it, which will be difficult to adapt to.

Natural food is another natural resource that we need to save before it’s too late. In the future, our daily food may taste different than it does now; this is also one reason why we should save it, not only for human survival, but also to keep the original taste of food. Small things, like chocolate, to big things, like water, all need to be saved, since they are becoming more and more expensive and the demands are rising! Research estimated that in 2039, chocolate will be very rare and very expensive! Keeping in mind, everything needs water to survive —  how can we cook without water? If we don’t save water, how can we farm? Without crops, there will be no food left. Just imagine the life of kids without chocolate! Save chocolate for you and also for your children!

Some people are thinking technology can save our lives, which is true, but if we don’t save natural resources, technology like 3D printing will not really help. Technology created a digital food database that stores information about the flavor, color, shape, texture, and nutrients of different kinds of foodstuffs. The user can select the type of food they want from the database and their 3D printer can create small cubes in the shape of that food, which is then injected with the corresponding flavors, colors, and nutrients. For a long period of time, the 3D printed food won’t last long and the taste will be odd, not like real food that people have been enjoying for centuries!

Industrial-scale bug farming is not yet a reality, though we can later use it as food. Even some Israeli companies have recently started to produce insect-based foods commercially. We can’t really feed our ever-growing population with these kinds of artificial food; we have to save and wisely use our natural resources so that we can really survive comfortably — people in Africa and the Far East can keep eating their favorite kinds of bugs whole and Westerners can continue to use insect powders which they add to their traditional items like steak, burgers, mashed potatoes, etc.

Scientists predict that in the year 2038, sugar will be the new drug; we miss it so much that we are addicted to it, especially as kids. Let’s think of the following situation: we live in a society where we eat fruit grown using genetics; we drink synthetic wine. Scrambled eggs do not come from chickens; grilled meat was not taken from animals; roast fish never saw the sea. If we don’t save our resources, our world in the future will be exactly like the situation described above.

Now you see, other than wisely utilizing technology, we definitely need to save the natural resources as we have proved here. According to the UN, if the amount of food wasted around the world were reduced by just 25% there would be enough food to feed all the people who are malnourished. Even one small group of people can make a difference. Join us now to save instead of wasting our Natural Resources!

Help the Animals

In this article, I will be talking about a couple animals: a horse, an elephant, and a dog. These are some of the many abused animals in the world. If we do not help these animals, they will die and go extinct. On the surface, these animals seem different. Horses are more farm animals, elephants are wild animals, and dogs are mostly pets. But they all share something in common: they are getting threatened and mistreated.  


Did you know that out of the 9.2 million horses in the U.S., 100,000 horses in the U.S. get killed every year? When horses get killed, people use them to make baseballs, gelatine, glue, dog food, and beer. They get sent to slaughter houses and get crammed in dangerous trails. 92.3% of the horses sent to slaughter are in good condition and should not be sent to slaughter since they are healthy and could still last you a while. The bipartisan bill was introduced to Congress on January 3, 2019 and is trying to end horse slaughter. We need to speak for horses since they cannot speak for themselves.

Fun Facts About Horses:

  • Horse meat is not safe for human consumption.
  • Taco Bell and Burger King in England used horse meat pretending it was cow meat.
  • The end of domestic horse slaughter will not damage the US market.


Elephants are treated very poorly by humans so we need to help them. The world is losing more elephants than their population can reproduce. Captive elephants are used for tourism. They are kept in horrible conditions. Elephants with big tusks are the most endangered. Less than half of the female population survives, creating lots of orphaned elephants. 100 African Elephants are killed every day by poachers, leaving only 100,000 remaining. The number of elephants in the world dropped 62% over the last decade. Poachers are after ivory, meat, and body parts. Ivory tusks are carved into jewelry and ornaments. We can take them in to protect them so they are not let out in the wild and killed.

Fun Facts About Elephants:

  • Elephants have the biggest brains of all the land animals.
  • There is only 40,000 Asian elephants remaining


We need to inform more people that dogs are being abused and treated badly. Dogs are the most abused animals with the highest reports of animal abuse. Two million dogs are killed each year (mostly in Eastern Europe) for their fur to make dog fur coats. The puppies are kept in horrible conditions and are bred purely for profit. Even though it’s illegal, there’s still dog fighting going on in the US. Dogs are hurt, often killed, and kept in isolation. Some have their ears and tails cut. Puppy mills are places where purebred dogs are churned out and ripped away from their mothers. Dogs are in need of help from humans.

Fun Facts about Dogs:

  • There are about 100 dog breeds in the world.
  • A one year old pup is as physically mature as a fifteen year old human. (Caesar’s Way)

This article was about the abuse of animals, but now we have to not just talk about how they are mistreated, but how to resolve this situation. We can donate to companies that help these animals or we can spread the word that we should respect and help these animals. This topic really interested me because I love animals, and I love researching about them.  Overall, all of these animals are treated badly and this is not how they should be treated.


Elephants Sources:

Online article: “Why Care?” World Elephant Day.

Horses Sources:

Online article: “A Humane World.” The Humane Society of the United States.

Dogs Sources:

Online article: “10 FactsYou May Not Know About Dogs.” Cesarsway.

Online Article: “Animal Cruelty Facts and Stats.” The Humane Society of the United States.

Water “The Elixir of Life”

Water is the substance that is essential to life. Without water, we cannot live. According to (Water Supply & Sanitation), one in ten people lack the access to clean water and 1.8 million people die from diarrheal disease. This cannot happen anymore. People are losing their lives because they don’t have clean water. Right now people are offering two solutions, one is asking for donations to build a well, and two is selling water filters. Just donating money to different websites is not as productive as new inventions, and so we should focus on creating new inventions that can help with water problems.

One way that people are trying to help places with no water is that they are making organizations that try to persuade people to donate money and using the money that people have donated. They will get the equipment to build a well at a place that doesn’t have water. When they build a well, usually a whole village gets water, and nearby villages can also come and get water from them. There is this one website called Charity Water which raises money and helps build wells. My grade donated to the website, and in total we raised $25,130. This is not advertising or required, but if you want to donate, you can go to: Donating will help many people worldwide. Charity Water also teaches people in the village how to take care of the well and how to repair it if it is broken. If the well is so broken that the people in the village cannot fix it, Charity Water will send someone there and help them fix it for free. These websites might be helpful for a bit, but soon people might not donate as much money as before because they need it for themselves.

Other than the organizations for building wells, people are creating new inventions such as lead detectors, water purifiers, etc. One company called LifeStraw makes water bottles with straws able to filter water so that the water will be safe to drink. Another cool invention is the Tethys, which is a water lead detector made by Gitanjali Rao, who is a 12-year-old. She won the Young Scientist challenge and got $25,000. The Tethys uses carbon nanotubes to detect lead in water and then sends the results to a smartphone with the Tethys app (Prisco). Attention: This device is not yet out on the market. One invention that has been around for a long time is Ceramic Water Filters. They are clay ceramic that have lots of tiny holes. The tiny holes are only big enough for water molecules to go through. Bacteria, dirt, and other bad stuff are too big to go through the small holes. This device was designed by Henry Doulton who is a British potter. This device was made in the early 1800’s (Kiger). Now, people are modifying the device by adding a silver coating to kill the bacteria and dangerous pathogens. There are still many inventions that are being made and are being tested. To me, all of these inventions are amazing and very cool.

Water filters are better than building wells. To build a well, it costs $6,000-$12,000 depending on how deep the water is (Brenner). People are going to have to donate at least $6,000 to build one well. On the other hand, buying a portable water filter costs $150-$275 ( This difference lets you see how much money people need to donate to build a well compared to how much money a portable water filter costs. Lot of people argue that building wells can help more people, but people can share a water filter just like a well, and it’s much cheaper. Many people also say that water filters don’t work. Reasons that they might not work is because you have to change the filter once in a while. Some water filters might have a light to indicate that it’s time to change the filter, and others will have instructions that will recommend to change it every few days. Donating money to websites might not last as long as water filters. Ergo, people should focus more on developing new water filters. That work is more important than making organizations that ask for donations to build a well.


Work Cited

Brenner, Laurie. “The Average Cost for a Well & Septic System | Hunker.”, Hunker, 26 Nov. 2009,

“Cost to Install a Water Treatment System – Estimates and Prices at Fixr.”, Fixr Blog, 22 Feb. 2016,

Kiger, Patrick J. “10 Innovations in Water Purification.” HowStuffWorks Science, HowStuffWorks, 8 Mar. 2018,

Prisco, Jacopo. “The 12-Year Old Who Won a $25,000 Science Prize.” CNN, Cable News Network, 15 Feb. 2018,

“Water Supply & Sanitation.” World Water Council,


Poverty and Hunger in NYC

Homelessness and hunger are very closely related. People who are homeless have a higher chance of being hungry than anyone else. Forty-two percent of New York City households – 2.7 million men, women, and children — lack the income needed to cover basic necessities like food, housing, transportation, and childcare ( Housing and food are necessities for life, yet they are overpriced. This is one reason why people don’t have a lot of the resources they need. Homelessness and hunger are two very important topics that are hurting our world, and they need to be stopped.

Nineteen point five percent of New York is in poverty. However, in April 2018, there were 62,498 homeless people, including 15,176 homeless families with 22,801 homeless children, sleeping each night in the New York City municipal shelter system. Families make up three-quarters of the homeless shelter population. The government can help, but they aren’t helping. Houses cost so much money, but people need them. Research shows that the primary cause of homelessness, particularly among families, is lack of affordable housing. Surveys of homeless families have identified the following major immediate, triggering causes of homelessness: eviction, doubled-up or severely overcrowded housing, domestic violence, job loss, and hazardous housing conditions.

Research shows that, compared to homeless families, homeless single adults have much higher rates of serious mental illness, addiction disorders, and other severe health problems. Studies show that the large majority of street homeless New Yorkers are people living with mental illness or other severe health problems. African-American and Latino New Yorkers are disproportionately affected by homelessness. Approximately 58 percent of New York City homeless shelter residents are African-American, 31 percent are Latino, 7 percent are white, less than 1 percent are Asian-American, and 3 percent are of unknown race/ethnicity ( Some people with privilege aren’t helping either. Most people feel like it is not their problem. Therefore, people are homeless. Homelessness leads to another important topic: hunger.

Nearly 1.3 million New Yorkers face hunger every year, including close to one in five New York City children. The number of food insecure people in NYC is larger than the population of Dallas, Texas ( The USDA defines “food insecurity” as the lack of access, at times, to enough food for all household members. One in six children struggle with hunger. One in eight people struggle with hunger. People facing hunger in New York are estimated to report needing $1,242,696,000 per year to meet their food needs. Thirty-four point seven percent of households receiving SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) benefits have children ( In 2011, households with children reported a significantly higher food insecurity rate than households without children: 20.6% vs. 12.2%. Forty-nine million Americans struggle to put food on the table. In the US, hunger isn’t caused by a lack of food, but rather the continued prevalence of poverty ( There is enough food, but people aren’t helping. The government can take action, but they aren’t. A reason people are hungry is because they don’t have money and food is overpriced. Some people with privilege aren’t helping either because they feel like it is not their problem. Therefore, people are hungry.

As you can see, homelessness and hunger are very important topics that are impacting New York and all over the world in a bad way. We need food and housing, yet most people can’t afford them. More people can be helping, yet most aren’t. I hope this essay will encourage people to help people in need or share their resources to the less fortunate. Some people don’t care or don’t think it’s their problem, but I hope they realize it is. Most people with privilege think they are better just because they have money, yet they don’t realize some people don’t have money at all. A lot of people who help don’t have some of the necessities for life and some don’t have any. All in all, we need to help the less fortunate for a better future.


Works Cited

Ink, Social. “Facts About Hunger.” City Harvest,

“Basic Facts About Homelessness: New York City.” Coalition For The Homeless,

“New York.” Feeding America,

“11 Facts About Hunger in the US.” | Volunteer for Social Change,


Why Is Everything in NYC So Expensive?

Do you ever wonder why everything in NYC (specifically Manhattan) is so expensive? Food, stuffed animals, rents for houses and apartments are just so overpriced. Well, in my opinion, everything in NYC is so expensive because of rent, there isn’t much space, and it’s so convenient.

One reason why NYC is so expensive is because the rent here is so high. For an example, the average rent of an apartment in Manhattan is $3,667. In New Jersey, the average rent for a 1-bedroom apartment is $1,366. Big difference, people! The rent is so expensive because there are so many people, and there is limited space. The landlords make the prices go higher, so they can earn more money. Since there are so many people that want it, they rent the apartment. This is what I think. Since so many people want to live in NYC, landlords take advantage of this and raise the rent. People want to make money.

Another reason why everything in NYC is so expensive is because there isn’t that much space. For example, Manhattan is only 22.6 square miles, and New Jersey is 8,722 ml. There’s another huge difference here. Remember, Manhattan has only limited space. So, it’s harder to find space for new buildings. The construction price would be high because of limited space. So owners who spent money on the building want to get the money back since the construction price would be high.

The last reason why everything in NYC is so expensive is because it’s really convenient to live in NYC (specifically Manhattan). For example, you can just walk to go from place to place. Also, you’re usually near bus and train stops. So if you work somewhere outside of your borough, take the train or bus to work. Since it’s so convenient to get from place to place, this is making it more expensive because (I know I already said this example but) since building/house owners want to make a lot of money and people want to live in convenient places, those owners take advantage of these people and raise the rent to make money.

In conclusion, in my opinion, everything in New York City is expensive because the rent is really high, there isn’t a lot of space, and it’s really convenient. I think we can make Manhattan buildings’ rents lower because some people aren’t that rich, but they want convenience. This topic is important to the community because now people will know that Manhattan is so expensive and why it’s so expensive. Duh.


Works Cited,+New+York,+NY/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x89c2588f046ee661:0xa0b3281fcecc08c?sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwig0fOjh4bdAhVOMd8KHf2PDtsQ8gEwH3oECAYQCw!4m2!3m1!1s0x89c0fb959e00409f:0x2cd27b07f83f6d8d?sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjqn6Gxh4bdAhXhSt8KHeprCYgQ8gEwFnoECAYQCw


Superheroes are Finally Becoming Good: The Diversity of Superheroes

Superheroes are getting so much more diverse. Before comics went through changes, most of the superheroes were all white males. Then, it changed to white females, and then all the slightest changes of diversity brought us to our current diverse comic world. When I finished reading “Spiderman,” I started reading “The Ultimate Spiderman.” This version of “Spiderman” was more entertaining than the original. And since the main character, Miles Morales, is young, it makes him funnier. In this comic book, Peter Parker, one of the default white male superheroes, dies. Before that, Miles Morales, a young black child, gets bitten by a spider. He then becomes the new Spiderman because he was bitten by a black widow just like Spiderman was. But he had more abilities, like the ability to become invisible and taze people.

This proves my point that superheroes are getting more diverse. Race, religion, relationships, and so much more are becoming diverse. These changes didn’t just happen in 2018, but they started back in the 1900’s when there was still racism. The slightest changes in diversity brought us to 2018 where the world is diverse. There was this scene before Peter died in the “Ultimate Spiderman,” when Miles just gets his powers. Two firefighters are having a conversation, when Miles is running and can’t stop, so he jumps over the long box like “Spiderman,” and the black firefighter was like, “I told you Spiderman was black.” After that he smiled. Miles Morales is a revolutionary figure in the world of comic books. He is changing the perspectives of superheroes in people’s minds. Perspectives are changing, making a black person one of the default superheroes. Miles Morales is changing the superhero genre and world of comic. Because of him, the genre is expanding, and new characters with different races and religions are joining Marvel and DC. The comic books genre is creating hope and role models for everyone that didn’t have them before.

One of the changes is that superheroes are getting more diverse in religion. Comic books are expanding, and one of the branches of expansion is religion. The typical superhero, the default, used to be a white man with either no religion or Christianity. Now there are many superheroes that have different religions. For example, Ms. Marvel is a Muslim superhero who is like a superwoman but in Marvel. This is big because this is a religious superhero. She is not another race but another religion, creating another branch of diversity. Another superhero that is challenging norms is the Thing (from the Fantastic Four). The Thing turns out to be Jewish. A Christian superhero is Captain Salvation. He may not be one of the big superheroes, but if you search him up on the internet, he’s there. These are revolutionary superheroes because they have religions, and these religions aren’t usually the default. This tells us that comic books are rapidly changing and featuring perspectives and voices they have not before.

Another aspect of comic books that is changing is race. After changes occurred, more diverse races were being represented. A well-known superhero that’s black is Cyborg. Cyborg is a teenager who was a great athlete but had an accident. His scientist dad repaired his body with technology, and after that he became a superhero. Cyborg became one of the most popular superheroes, and he was black. Not only was he African American, but he was also one of the main characters on the Teen Titans. This was a huge change because the default main characters would be white males. Not only are there new superheroes of different races that are male but new ones that are also female. Katana, is an Asian female superhero from Suicide Squad. After her husband dies, she becomes a martial arts expert and samurai and is on a quest to find her husband’s spirit. She is one of the most well-known Asian superheroes, and there are not many Asian superheroes at all. Not to mention, she is also female. The first black superhero was Black Panther, and one of its recent hits was the Black Panther movie in 2018. The movie was extremely popular. This tells us that not only white superheroes will get viewers, but a more diverse set of superheroes will also get just as much and more attention. In fact, people seemed to enjoy Black Panther more than Captain America. People are accepting this new change and not hating the changes.

The last aspect of the change occuring in comic books is gender. Before changes occurred, there weren’t many female superheroes and the ones that did exist didn’t get as much attention as the men. As society changed over the past 20 through 30 years, it evolved and changed and became more diverse, segregation was stopped and equality was made causing massive changes to happen in gender. There were a lot of changes in gender. This wasn’t only for the comic universe but for current events too. For example a well-known female superhero is Black Widow. Black Widow was an orphan saved by Soviet Union officers who then trained her to be a fighting expert. According to CNN Politics, a recent protest was for women’s rights. People from all over the world came to protest about women’s equality. Although DC isn’t as diverse as Marvel, they still have well-known superheroes such as Wonder Woman. However DC Comics isn’t as diverse as Marvel. DC has tried making characters more diverse and sometimes succeeded but other times it couldn’t hold its place in the market. On the other hand, Marvel is successfully making more diverse characters. However, DC has some well-known superheroes like Harley Quinn and Raven. Although there are white women, there aren’t as many different races of women.

Representations of diversity are important because they relate to equality. People look up to superheroes as role models. As superheroes get more diverse, people get a chance to look up to new superheroes of the same race, religion, or gender as them. Then, people become more comfortable looking up to someone more like the person they are. It also makes people feel stronger because superheroes are made to help people and give them hope. Although, this means that society at large won’t be as comfortable receiving hope from people of different races and ethnicities as them. People of different races and ethnicities were new to some in the USA so if you met them in the street, the fact that you were meeting a person totally different from you was unsettling. Even though superheroes of different ethnicities may be uncomfortable for some, the more diverse superheroes that are made, the more people will get comfortable.


Abad-Santos, Alex. “Marvel Misspoke about Diversity in Comics. Now It Has a Chance to Do Better.” Vox, Vox, 4 Apr. 2017,

Allen, Thomas. “Comics Color Outside the Lines, Drawing a Diverse Cast of Heroes.” National Geographic, 18 May 2017,

Brown, Jennings. “Superhero Diversity Hasn’t Advanced In A Single Bound.” Vocativ, Vocativ, 4 Oct. 2016,

Brown, Jennings. “Superhero Diversity Hasn’t Advanced In A Single Bound.” Vocativ, Vocativ, 4 Oct. 2016,

Doll, Jen. “On the Importance of Having Superheroes.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 30 Oct. 2013,

“How Superheroes Are Changing the Way We Think about Diversity – Bloomberg L.P Diversity & Inclusion.”, Bloomberg, 31 Jan. 2018,

“Opinion | Diverse Superhero Stories Are Drowned out by the Status Quo.”, NBCUniversal News Group,


The Jungle Is in Danger, and We Should Help Save It

The jungle in the Central Region of Africa has many problems. One problem is that wood is being taken from the trees, and trees are vital to the world. We can stop these wood shortages and other horrible problems. It is important that we save the jungle because of the reasons on this essay and a few more. One reason that we should save the jungle is that there are many cool and interesting animals in Africa, and they are in danger. Another reason is that many natural resources come from the jungle. The final reason that we should stop destroying the jungle is that the jungle is a really interesting place to study and gives zoologists lots of things to study and grow smarter.

We should save the animals in the jungle because there are many interesting animals in the jungle, and they are losing their homes. Monkeys and elephants, for example — we probably all love those animals or at least do not want them to die — so if you help preserve the jungle, the monkeys and elephants will not die as fast. The next reason that we should save the jungle is that most of the cool items (leaves, berries, and animals) come from the jungle. Some of the cool animals that come from the jungle are every species of ape, which evolved into us humans, elephants, and many reptiles, and now we are taking their homes. This is only one reason that we should save the jungle. I personally like these animals because they are cute and friendly.

We should also save the jungle because the jungle holds a lot of knowledge for zoologists and other people who are just interested in the jungle. The jungle is one of the most interesting places in the world. The jungle is interesting because the animals are exotic and only can be found in the jungle, (or the specific breed lives in the jungle). Additionally, the trees are interesting because of the way they layer, and no other environment works that way. Additionally, if there is a problem in the jungle, then if the zoologists know enough about the jungle (by studying the safe and endangered jungle) then they can stop the problem. If we help preserve the jungle, then these scientists can have their fair share of knowledge, just like you need to have.

We should save the natural resources in the jungle because the jungle provides many different and potentially important natural resources. The first example of a natural resource is the carbon dioxide that the trees freshen into oxygen. Also, the natural fruits, vegetables, and other foods that people can make medicines with. These medicines can cure a viper bite, which could really save a life. The jungle provides many resources, and we can use them (just not the wood!). The fruits and vegetables or natural resources are not good to just take in order to exterminate the jungle.

The jungle is in real danger, and we have the power to save it. The first reason is that there are many animals in the jungle, and they are dying. Also, the jungle can give a lot of knowledge to zoologists. Finally, the jungle provides many different natural and vital resources to planet earth. If you live near or have the ability to, save the jungle (do not cut down trees or kill animals, but you should join an organization that donates to save the jungle). I do believe that saving the jungle can help the world, because we know that jungles are vital to our lives and our economy. My school is very much involved in this topic, so they can help with my plan. I for one believe that the jungle is extremely important, so that is why we should save the jungle. Saving the jungle is vital to the human race and the world.


From Wolf to Dog

How has “the dog” become “man’s best friend”? Today, we see dogs as a very important part of most people’s lives. They are treated like other humans, almost as equals, and sometimes even better than most humans in the world. People used to think that animals were just for guarding and hunting, and they treated them like regular animals. However, this change of public opinion about dogs was caused when people started having them as pets.

Dogs are the oldest pets. People and wolves became close, and humans bred the different types and created dogs. People are so close to dogs because they have been so close for such a long time. They were domesticated at least 30,000 years ago, but it could have been earlier. The species of dogs are estimated to be around 15,000-20,000 years old. Later pets would be sheep and goats, 11,000 years ago, and cats around 10,000 years ago. Humans first began taking in wolf pups, which tamed the wolves because they had taken them in when they were puppies. They first started domesticating them for hunting. Humans gave the wolves food, and the wolves told the humans when strangers or predators approached. When wolves became dogs, they evolved to have smaller skulls, brains, teeth, and paws. They like having a job to do, like herding. The evolutionary advantages of wolves was that they got smaller teeth, paws, etc. Dogs have evolved to eat other stuff besides raw meat. They are omnivores now. There are different kinds of dogs in different cultures. For example, in Alaska, dog sleds are pulled by Huskies and Alaskan Malamutes. Afghan hounds are from Afghanistan. There are also many breeds of English dogs. When you take a dog and breed it in a certain place, it may evolve to fit the environment, creating a new breed of dog.

The historical and cultural evolution of the dog in public opinion has changed how people like and view dogs. There have been many famous dogs throughout history that have changed people’s views about dogs. For example, many presidents had dogs like Fala, Franklin Roosevelt’s dog, Bo, Obama’s dog, and Buddy, Bill Clinton’s dog. Fala even has a statue at the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. There are also dogs from TV and comics like Snoopy, Scooby Doo, and Pluto.

People have seen dogs as pets for a long time. In different parts of the world, humans have created 339 different dog breeds, not including mixed breeds. Even if someone does not like dogs, there is practically a dog breed for everyone. Short ones, tall ones, big ones, little ones. The 339 breeds are sorted into seven groups, Terrier, Working, Toy, Sporting, Hound, Herding and Non-Sporting. The breeds in the Herding group, for example, are bred to herd. If someone is looking for a certain dog to be a gift, they might pick a Toy dog like a Pug or Pomeranian. When people first started domesticating dogs, it was usually for hunting or as guard dogs. Nowadays, a lot of dogs are for pets and police dogs and for herding on farms. People have dogs as pets today because it makes them happier, and some people just really like dogs. They think that dogs are cute, cool, and most dogs have very good personalities. Most dogs follow their owner around everywhere, and having a dog prevents loneliness. In the past, people may have just thought of dogs as working animals, like they might think about farm animals like horses. People use dogs for other domestic things like therapy and guiding the blind. People started treating dogs better because they were helping them more. They started treating them better and better, until they began to think of them as man’s best friend.

Dogs are arguably the most popular pet. However, in the past, dogs weren’t the most popular pet; they were just working animals. Public opinion has changed because there have become even more types of dogs, and they now are celebrated in pop culture. Now, we love dogs more because they have done more stuff for us, like protecting us, helping us, and just making us feel better. We celebrate them because we have had them for such a long time, and they have been very useful.



List of oldest dogs

  • Saluki
  • Pekingese
  • Lhasa Apso
  • Chow Chow
  • Basenji
  • Alaskan Malamute
  • Akita Inu
  • Afghan Hound


Works Cited


Why Paintball Wars Should Be a National Sport

Dear horrible President Donald Trump,

I, Jasper S. Hirt, student of P.S. 58, think that the sport paintball wars should be a national sport or a sport that you can tune into when you’re watching TV. If it were up to me, paintball would have a chance to be in the Olympics. Imagine tuning into a paintball channel, then liking the sport, so you would want to watch more of it, but you can’t because paintball is not a national sport. People who like action stuff, like me and some of my friends, would also like paintball. A couple examples for why paintball fighting should be a national sport are that it can have lots of action, it can be very interesting, and can be very good exercise for you if you want to join.

Paintball fighting has lots of action which is good because action is one of the most watched type of movies. That is important because football, for example, has lots of action and violence just like paintball fighting, so that means that it might get the same amount of attention just as football. My second reason for why paintball should be a national sport is that a lot of people like to see and do action, like me and a couple of my friends. Action movies have a lot of shooting, jumping, running, and hiding, and paintball has all of those things. Last but not least, I have my third reason. Not many sports include action like paintball fighting, so that means that there would be more sports that include action, so people who like action sports have more to watch.

My second reason on why paintball should be a national sport is that it can be very interesting. Paintball can be very interesting because your kids could join, and you really want to see your kid become a champion, don’t you? Plus, you want to vote for your country’s or state’s paintball team. Paintball could represent a country like the U.S., and then you can have it in the Olympics. It could be interesting to watch country fight country, instead of city vs. city or state vs. state. Another reason paintball can be interesting is that if your husband or wife likes to play paintball and gets really good and decides to join the country’s or state’s national team. Paintball fighting is also basically war. Here is the fact that for me, personally, is most important, and it’s that you use weapons. You don’t use weapons in any sport except fencing and archery, but you use practically guns! Well, they’re not real guns. They’re like guns that shoot balls of paint. The paintball guns are actually safer than a compound bow or a recurve bow because paintball guns are not lethal.

My third and last reason on why paintball should be a national sport is that it can be super healthy for you. My first reason why paintball fighting can be good exercise is that if you imagine that your life depends on it, because wouldn’t you do anything for your life, because I totally would. Plus, you have to do a ton of running, and we all know that running is good exercise. Plus, in paintball you can get really stressed and sometimes when you’re stressed out you sweat, and my opinion is that whenever you sweat it’s good for you.

Before the conclusion, I would like to say that my very strong reason on why paintball should be a national sport is that that no other sports include trying to shoot someone. Don’t get me wrong or anything, because that could be positive because shooting and war is one of the most watched type of movie genres so why won’t it be a game. If you don’t get it, what I am trying to say is that people would want to feel like they’re in danger, but they really aren’t. Like seriously, name one sport where you try and shoot someone. Because in archery you shoot at a target and same with BB gun shooting you also shoot a target, but in paintball you are actually trying to shoot someone and try to not get shot yourself. That is my ultimate reason on why paintball should be a national sport, because it would be the only very aggressive sport.

In conclusion, that was why paintball should be a national sport, because it can have lots of action, it can be very interesting, and can be very good exercise for you if you want to join. Plus, like I said earlier, it could be very interesting to watch and tune into on a Sunday morning or something like that. If you don’t like action, then you could think of paintball as a suspenseful game, not as an action sport, and see if that will fit you better.


The reader should read…

I’m writing this because I believe that paintball fighting should be a national sport. Imagine tuning into a paintball channel, then liking the sport you would want to see more of, but you can’t because paintball is not a national sport. Since it’s not a national sport, you can only see it once a year which is not a lot of times in your life. Paintball could represent a country like the U.S., and then you can have it in the Olympics. It could be interesting to watch country fight country instead of city vs. city or state vs. state. Paintball is also very good exercise because you are running around with a fake gun in your hand trying not to get shot or trying to shoot another person, but that person could be better than you. Let’s not forget that running around, hiding, and jumping up and down takes a lot of energy. Can we not forget that paintball fighting has a lot of action. Action is one of the most watched movie genres out of sci-fi, drama, and horror (comedy is first). Action movies have a lot of shooting, jumping, running, and hiding, and paintball has all of those things. Am I right, because paintball is kind of fake war.

P.S. When you finish reading this, I want you to say to yourself and friends, do you like action and want good exercise or even want paintball on TV. Write your own essay, and send it to the president, saying that paintball should be a national sport. Because I think it’s a great idea, and I hope that other people think so too, just like me.


Lessons from Harry Potter


Harry Potter is one of the most inspiring series in recent history, written by J.K. Rowling, and first published in 1997. This series is significant because it has a lot of life lessons. The life lessons I chose influenced me and the world. This series teaches everyone to not judge a book by its cover, and to never be afraid.


Lesson One

My first lesson is to not judge a book by its cover. I learned this lesson when Snape, the dark, bitter, potions professor, turns out to be protecting Harry Potter. When Harry looks into Snape’s memories, he sees that Snape loved Harry’s mother, Lily, and would do anything to regain Lily’s trust. This shows that Harry shouldn’t have judged Snape by who he appears to be. This lesson is important to me because I have a friend in my class. The first time I saw her, she was shy and quiet. But as I got to know her, I learned that she gets into fights with her parents and siblings. Not only does this lesson affect me, but it also affects the world.  This lesson influenced the world because, in American history, everyone thought that Aaron Burr (the third U.S. Vice President) was great and all. However, he got into a fight with Alexander Hamilton, and unfortunately killed him. Instead of being honest and telling the current President, he fled to a different colony. This shows that even though someone appears to be kind and helpful, they could still do the wrong thing.


Lesson Two

My second lesson is to never be afraid. In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallow, Harry Potter finds courage to face Voldemort and die for his friends. This lesson influences me because, in fourth grade, I was really shy at school. I never spoke or answered questions, but when I started to read the Harry Potter series, I started to realize that if you don’t have courage, you won’t be able to accomplish things. Also, in real life, if you don’t speak up, you won’t get your thoughts through. However, this doesn’t just affect me. It also affects the world. If Martin Luther King Jr. was afraid to protest and make a speech about human rights, the United States would still have black and white segregation today. This shows that you can only make a change if you speak up and say your opinion about things like Martin Luther King Jr. and other powerful leaders did.



To sum up, I think the Harry Potter series is an influence to me and the world in different ways, and it helped me become more mature. The Harry Potter series is great for kids and teens who are into fantasy and adventure. In fact, this series is for everyone. In July 21 2007, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows was released, one month before my birthday.


The 1919 World Series: the Chicago White Sox vs. the Cincinnati Reds

The 1919 World Series: the Chicago White Sox vs. the Cincinnati Reds. This is a very interesting topic I know a lot about. People should know more about this event and how it impacted the world. This changed the world when the player Shoeless Joe Jackson was banned from baseball because he was in on the World Series fix when he could have been in the Hall of Fame. This mostly had a big impact on him and all the other players who were banned and could have been Hall of Famers. A few players were to be paid a total of $100,000 dollars for throwing the game. Jackson made a really bad decision for himself because he bet his career on money. This changed every team’s opinions today about cheating. Soon after, they thought they could get past the MLB with cheating. This event had an impact on the 1919 World Series and baseball in general.

In the first game of the series, the White Sox were mixing up mistakes with good plays  to kick off the Series. They made it seem like they were still playing, but just not very well, like they were sick. They lost game one, 9 – 1, and everyone was shocked. Also, it was like they were actors. They lost the game two,  4 – 2. In the third game, the White Sox won 3 – 0 because Dickey Kerr threw a three-hit shutout that stopped the Reds from winning. In the fourth game, the Reds didn’t have a hit until the fifth inning. They went on to win 2 – 0 and took a 3 – 1 series lead.The Reds won the next game and took a 4-1 lead. Then, the Sox won the next two games, and then the Reds won the whole thing with game eight.

The game has changed since the Series. In 2017, they noticed that the Red Sox cheated by using Apple Watches and telling the batter or runner what the Yankees’ pitches were by their signs. In training season and during the play offs, they check the players for steroids. In the middle of a game, if they see the pitcher hitting the target too accurately, they might check him for an illegal substance. Back then, they didn’t check for drugs or illegal substances. That tells me how much the rules and guidelines have changed over the years. Also, they probably wouldn’t get to gamble because they have security cameras and special investigators. That’s how much the game has changed.  

One thing that the White Sox should have done is think before they accepted the gamblers’ offer and money to blow the series because if you don’t think first, you’ll have very bad consequences. The White Sox did something first, and then they thought about what they had done after it was over. Like I said earlier, they could have been Hall of Famers, but they didn’t think before they did it. That’s why they didn’t become future Hall of Famers. If they had thought what about they were doing before they did it, they probably would have been Hall of Famers. If only they had maybe thought hard on the gamble, but instead they just went right into the fix.

Shoeless Joe was mad at himself for taking the money to kick the Series. If I were Joe, I would have not been in the fix and played better than I’ve ever played before to try and win the Series single-handedly. Even before the Series, they were the favorite to win. If they would have actually tried, they probably would have won. I think it’s bad to cheat if it’s in the World Series. If it’s on a test in school, it’s different. In school, you can learn from your mistakes and not have heavy consequences. In the World Series, it’s different because you have bigger consequences like getting thrown out of baseball forever. You can’t go back unless you have a time machine. Also, if you cheat in life, you can’t go back. Once you cheat, you can’t undo it. You’ll be out of a job, or your life as you know it, for good. What would I do if someone tried to bribe me to kick a game? I would probably say “no” and try my best to not cheat in life.


A Book About Space


Table of Contents

Solar System………………………….1

Greek Forms…………………………..2

The Milky Way Galaxy……………….3


Earth’s History……………….………..5

Interesting Facts………………………6

The Solar System

Our Solar System has:

  • One star
  • Eight planets
  • Five dwarf planets
  • 181 moons
  • 566,000 asteroids
  • 3,100 comets

The one star in our solar system is called the sun. It’s a big ball of fire, and if you come too close, it can burn you. It is very hot because there is a gas in it which makes it burn. 1.3 million Earths can fit in it! Woah! That’s a lot.

The eight planets in our solar system include Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The temperature of Mercury is 800 degrees Fahrenheit or 430 degrees Celsius. The temperature of Venus is 864 degrees Fahrenheit or  462 degrees Celsius. The temperature of Earth is about 61 degrees Fahrenheit or 16 degrees Celsius. The temperature of Mars is -67 degrees Fahrenheit or -55 degrees Celsius. The temperature of Jupiter is -234 degrees Fahrenheit or -145 degrees Celsius. The temperature of Saturn is -288 degrees Fahrenheit or -178 degrees Celsius. The temperature of Uranus is -357 degrees Fahrenheit or -216 degrees Celsius. The temperature of Neptune is -353 degrees Fahrenheit or -214 degrees Celsius.

There are five dwarf planets in our solar system known to us. A dwarf planet is a space object which looks like a small planet but doesn’t have all the requirements. The five dwarf planets that we know today include Haumea, Makemake, Eris, Pluto, and Ceres.

Pluto used to be a planet, but then astronauts thought that it was too small and that it did not have all the requirements of a planet. It does not “clear the neighborhood” of its orbit, which means it bumps into things while it’s orbiting, and the rule is that a planet cannot bump into anything while it’s orbiting.

Mercury and Venus don’t have any moons. Earth has one, and Mars has two. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have many moons. The Earth’s moon is 2,158 miles. The Earth’s moon affects Earth, because the moon’s gravity pulls up water from the ocean, causing tides to form. Some planets have moons because huge rocks bumped into them, which caused a little part of them to come out and make a moon. But some planets don’t have a moon, because it didn’t happen to them.

Asteroids are basically big rocks that float all around space and sometimes come crashing into planets and stars. Asteroids are formed when two planets bump into each other. The parts that come out become asteroids. They look like huge rocks floating in the air. They go from floating to crashing when they bump into planets. About once a year, a huge asteroid hits Earth. When an asteroid comes crashing into Earth, it crashes above the sky called the atmosphere. We don’t notice it, because it’s so far above us, and it doesn’t have time to hit us.

A comet is basically a big, ball of fire in the front with a tail following behind it like a plane. It’s very colorful. When comets come crashing into Earth, they set on fire. This causes it to become a shooting star. It’s always moving. It looks sparkly and tie-dye.


Greek Forms

  • The Greek form of Mercury is Hermes.
  • The Greek form of Venus is Aphrodite.
  • Earth is the only planet in our solar system which does not have a Greek form.
  • The Greek form of Mars is Ares.
  • The Greek form of Jupiter is Zeus.
  • The Greek form of Saturn is Kronos.
  • Uranus is already named by a Greek.
  • The Greek form of Neptune is Poseidon.

A Greek form is, in this case, a planet but in another language. The planets we have, when they’re in their Roman form, is the name that we usually call them. Planets were given their names thousands of years ago. The Roman people who discovered them are the ones who named them. The Roman forms and Greek forms are alike, because Jupiter is Zeus, and Zeus is the head of all the gods and goddesses, and Jupiter is the biggest planet. So, Jupiter is basically the head of all the planets.

The Milky Way Galaxy

It travels at approximately 515,000 miles per hour — that’s really fast! It is made up of gas and dust called nebula, planets, stars, asteroids, comets, and meteors. It was made around 14 billion years ago. It looks sort of like a spiral with lots of sparkles on it. New stars are pretty much always forming inside the galaxy. In the center of the MIlky Way, there is something called a black hole, which is pretty much a black hole that can suck you in, even if you are far away. There are many black holes. This might be hard to believe, but it is a lot bigger than our sun. This black hole started off really small, but then, by the amount of gas that came into it, it became huge, and now it’s like a giant! It swallows up all of the stars it can get.

The measurements recently taken say that it is 400 billion to 780 billion times the sun’s mass. That is so much! The Milky Way is 100,000 light years wide (1 light year is 600 trillion miles). The Milky Way has many temperatures, since the Sun is really hot and Neptune is really cold. Since they’re both in it, that means that it has different temperatures. The Milky Way orbits super, super, super fast, so even the fastest thing in the world can’t keep up! In the city, you wouldn’t really see as many stars in the sky, but if you go to some places like the mountains or the country, you would see part of the Milky Way. We are in it, so you would see other parts. At the center of the Milky Way is a huge bulge. The Milky Way is filled with gas, stars, dust, other planets, and dwarf planets. The bulge is why you can only see small parts of the galaxy. Dust and gas inside are too thick, so you cannot even see the bulge.

Scientists think that 90% of our Milky Way’s weight has dark matter, which we can’t even see. The Milky Way is so big that it has over 200 billion stars! But it’s not exactly 200 billion, because like humans, stars form every second and die every second. The galaxy has grown so big, because it’s taking in other galaxies to grow to its formal size, and it’s doing so right now. All the pictures that you’ve seen of the Milky Way on the internet aren’t really the Milky Way. It’s either a photograph of another galaxy or a painting. We can’t take a picture of our own galaxy, because we’re already in it.



NASA stands for National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It is a company which launches rocketships into space to get information about space. The head of NASA is named Charles Bolden. NASA works for America and has launched a total of 166 rockets, and has gotten a lot, a lot, a lot of information. Two of the names of rockets that NASA have launched recently include Falcon 9 and Antares. The first rocket that NASA ever launched to the moon was Apollo 11. The people in the rocket were Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. They took a trip to the moon to get some material from it and bring it back to Earth. It took about three days to get there. They stayed on the moon for about two hours and 15 minutes outside of the rocket.

On the moon, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin ate fruit strips, corn chowder, ham-salad sandwiches, tuna salad, and all of this food was dry dehydrated. The lunar spacesuits were made to make the astronauts be safe and healthy. They could wear it for about 115 hours.


Earth’s History

Before the Solar System was created, it was just a bunch of rocks, gas, air, and dust. Then, it started to rotate really fast and started to come together and form comets and asteroids. The asteroids and comets started to spin more and more and turned into eight planets and a sun. Then, a part broke off of the Earth and became our moon. All of the lighter stuff came to the outside of Earth, and all the heavier stuff came to the inside of Earth. When two rocks banged together, it formed a mountain. Volcanoes happened because lava came through the mountains.

When Earth was just created, any plants, animals, or people were not able to survive. When Earth was still young, instead of having seven little continents (North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica), there was one big continent called Pangea. One hundred eighty million years ago, Pangea broke up into the seven continents that we have today. If we lived back then, we wouldn’t be able to feel it moving or see it, because it was happening so slowly. Then, when little pieces of bacteria and chemicals formed, they helped plants stay alive, which helped plants and animals live.

The first dinosaurs were born 225 million years ago. Sixty-five million years ago, dinosaurs went extinct.

Many years after that, humans came. They’re the smartest species to exist, even now. They didn’t have all the stuff back then that we have now, such as chairs, tables, phones, electricity, paper, pens, and other things like that. Early humans lived at the same time as mammoths and other things like that.


Interesting Facts

  • If you were out in space, and no one was talking and you didn’t have a speaker, everything would be silent, which means you wouldn’t hear anything!
  • No one can possibly know how many stars are in the universe. There are over billions, and billions, and billions, and billions (which means there are a lot).
  • The footprints of the Apollo astronauts will probably stay on the moon for 100 million years.
  • 99% of our solar system is made out of the sun. That means the sun is really, really big.
  • When two pieces of the same kind of metal touch in space, they will be stuck together forever.
  • A day on Venus is a year on Earth. That means that Venus’s days are really long.
  • You become taller when you’re in space, because of microgravity. Microgravity means a very small amount of gravity, and that’s what stretches people’s spines out.
  • Neptune’s wind moves the fastest than any other planet. It moves 1600 mph!
  • The hottest planet isn’t the closest one to the sun. Even though Mercury is the closest to the sun, Venus is the hottest planet. This is because Venus has a lot of gases in its atmosphere, which causes the “Greenhouse Effect”.
  • The word “astronaut” comes from the Greek word “astron” which means “star” and “nautes” which means “sailor”. So, the word “astronaut” actually means “star sailor”.
  • You can’t cry in space, because the tears won’t come out.
  • Nebula is a cloud where stars are created. It can come in all shapes and sizes.
  • If a star comes too close to a black hole, it will be broken apart.
  • The Solar System has been here for about 4.6 billion years Scientists think that it going to last another five billion years.
  • Enceladus is one of Saturn’s smallest moons. It reflects about 90% of sunlight, making it more reflective than snow.
  • NASA’s Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) have found evidence that there is water on Earth’s moon.
  • The sun makes a full rotation every 25 – 35 days.


Three Long Reasons Why Sahara Should Have a Puppy

Sahara should have a puppy. Deal with it. There are many reasons a dog will be good for her. Dogs are fun, but that’s not the only reason she wants one. Dogs teach maturity and devotion. And your daughter, Sahara, really, really wants one. Sahara deserves a dog because dogs are good for kids. She has a plan to help pay for the dog, and a dog will help her be responsible.

Dogs are awesome because they are good for kids. It is a scientific fact that when you touch a dog, a chemical comes and makes you happy. If you want Sahara to jog, she has to jog with a dog. It’s common rhyming. She will be outside all the time. She will take it to the park every day after school. Sahara will do more swimming with a dog. And she’ll ride her bike with her dog in her mom’s basket. You will not have to do any work because Sahara knows that it is her responsibility. Sahara promises to pay the dog sitter if she is going on vacation. Or if she is going to Virginia or Philadelphia, etc., she will pay to take it with her. She will care for it until it dies.

Even though dogs are expensive, Sahara has a plan to get money. Okay, yes, she knows that puppies are not necessarily cheap. Don’t worry. She has a plan. She already has Xavier paying $20. She has been saving her money for about a month now, so that is about $10. Her mom owes her $30. She is trading her $20 Target gift card with her mom for $20 in cash or on her card. Altogether, that’s $80, and she is trying to raise $20 before her Christmas deadline.

Uncle Carl will give Sahara tips on managing the dog, since he has done so successfully for five years, and he will donate $50 for the upkeep/maintenance of the dog. So now, that is $130, not including the $20 she wants to earn. As you can see, Sahara has a plan for paying for the puppy.

There are daily things she will have to do, and that will help her be more responsible. As soon as she gets home with the puppy, it is going to have a look around, and then she is going to teach it to sit. Over the next few weeks, she is going to potty train it and teach it to come when called. She is also going to have it learn how to walk properly on a leash. She will teach it that when it is alone, it should just play in its playpen and not break anything. Sahara would have to walk Bella/Blue — the name will be Bella if it’s a girl, and Blue if it’s a boy — the maltipoo every day. She would have to feed Bella/Blue every day. She would brush Bella’s/Blue’s teeth every day. And every week, she would have to wash him/her. It would help her do her chores daily. She will have to take care of a dog, and when she’s older, it will help her take care of her children.  

So now you know a few things. One: Sahara has plans for a puppy. Two: a puppy teaches responsibility. And there are many daily jobs to do and lots of things for her to clean. But she will do them everyday.


The reason chores are not always done every day is because they aren’t living things that would make any noise or move on their own. But she also has a plan for that. She is going to make a sign that says, “Do your chores!” and put it somewhere that she will see it every day.


Calling All Teachers

Dear teachers and administrators,

Thank you all for being gathered here. My name is Emily Birman, and I’m a 6th grader in M.S. 54. Throughout my seven years in public school, I have written quite a few essays and also quite a few creative writing stories. I’ve written persuasive essays, reading responses formed like essays, and at the same time, a few stories just based on what I think about a topic that I made up.

I think that essay writing may be pushing kids, and that’s why a lot of students prefer just writing their own stories instead of listening to a teacher give them a certain point that they have to write about.

In 4th grade, I remember having to write an essay about what I think about zoos: should we keep zoos or shut them down? Even though in this essay that I had to write, I was able to choose what side I wanted, there was still something that I needed to write about. Yes or no, but I couldn’t choose the topic. I had to write about zoos. I learned about the advantages and disadvantage of zoos. I could have done the same thing by writing creatively. Kids could have researched about it, but interpreted it with their own creativity instead of being forced by their teacher to write about a topic that they might not want to. While writing a creative story, I enjoy spilling out all of the ideas, and I can’t stop, or else I find myself in the situation of being stuck, not knowing what to write next.

But when I, or other students, hear the word “essay,” we all groan. We know that right now, we are going to get a prompt that we have to answer, and we don’t have a choice how we want to structure or form it.

This reaches to another point. In creative writing, there isn’t any certain structure that you  must follow, unlike essays where there is a formula that you have to follow. A type of paragraph in a essay, as many of you may know, is “RACER.” My class just learned this, and for the past couple weeks, that is the only type of paragraphs we have been writing. “R” is restate, “A” is answer, “C” is cite, “E” is explain, and “R” is revise. We can’t write freely in whatever kind of way we want. We can only do so much with this format. We only have a limited amount of sentences within a paragraph.

I remember one time in class, a girl brought in a paragraph that was about ten sentences long, and there were four sentences that didn’t exactly follow the RACER structure. My teacher said to delete those sentences. They were not “needed.” This way, people will start limiting themselves, and soon, I predict that people will start writing just a few sentences instead of a paragraph, which is five to seven sentences. Another way that people could be limiting themselves is in creativity. As soon as the structure gets stuck, it will be hard to add their creativity in while still using the form or structure. This doesn’t only go with the RACER structure, but with every structure, and it may also be hard for students learning it while they want to be creative and to include creativity.

Some of you may not agree with me though. Using help from a few friends, I came up with a few counter arguments. One thing that some of you may be thinking is, “But we need more structures, not less, because then, it won’t be organized.” But that’s not true because it really matters what you’re writing. In creative writing, there’s really no certain structure or structures that you have to follow, so there’s really no way that it can sound unorganized or messy.  

There can obviously be multiple more reasons why any of you might disagree, but one reason is because then it might seem as if the teacher is teaching different structures to everyone. But even people who haven’t learned the structure can see how the structure is the same for each person, so it would be boring reading it for them. In creative writing, there isn’t any form that you must follow, so that way, it wouldn’t sound repetitive.

What I really want to improve in classes when it comes to writing is to have as many essays as creative stories. In each grade, we always wrote more essays than stories. I don’t see why. Creative writing also helps. All of my teachers said that creativity and imagination are very important, so why don’t we use it? I hope all of you take this in mind and hopefully make a change. Thank you.


Why Minecraft is Educational

I believe that Minecraft is educational because it can help them with problems, especially in creative mode where the player has every block. Furthermore, in creative mode, the player can unleash his or her full imagination. The player can build boats, planes, cities, and even empires.

In survival mode, the player spawns and has on materials, and it is a challenge to get enough resources and be ready for monsters to come at night and try to kill the player. The player must use their instincts to survive. “New moves to learn new things” in Minecraft helps kids with problem solving, says Margaret Rock in the “Modern Parent” section of 2 Machines. See, even some parents agree with me and others.

Minecraft opened a new edition called Educational mode for the classroom, according to an article by Mojang, the video game developer of Minecraft. Minecraft made educational mode to help kids around the world learn and bring forth their imagination. When any person uses their  imagination, they don’t have a dull life and the player learns how to be creative. Creativity predicts a longer life. In a Scientific American article, “researchers found that only creativity — not intelligence or overall openness — decreased mortality risk. Also one possible reason creativity is protective of health is because it draws on a variety of neural networks within the brain.” James Clear cites studies and research that demonstrates how creating art decreases negative emotions, reduces stress and anxiety, and improves medical outcomes. In creative mode of minecraft the user is given an infinite number of blocks and can not die, so the player has no limit to using his/her imagination. Not only can being creative help you live longer, but it can improve your quality of health and life too.

All in all, for these reasons minecraft is healthy and educational, plus it is awesome. Even though it is a video game, it is a fun educational video game that helps build creativity and problem solving. I think kids should use minecraft in school. If you were to play minecraft in school, it wouldn’t be a free period, because you still have to learn in school. Duh.      


Do Calculators Have a Negative or Positive Effect on People’s Brains?

I have seen many kids use calculators who don’t understand what they are doing. They don’t understand the consequence of their actions. The handheld calculator was invented in 1967. Even by 1986 (29 years ago), calculators represented an estimated 41% of the world’s general-purpose hardware capacity to compute information. Calculators have a negative effect on people’s brains. It causes kids to not know basic math facts.

Calculators were invented as a tool for adults to use in their jobs. Adults use calculators to figure out their rent and issues like that. It is used to calculate money so they don’t pay too much or too little money. Calculators are not supposed to be used by kids who just want to get their math homework done quickly. It is better to take time and learn the basic facts. It is important for kids to have a base in math just like a building that needs to grow bigger and bigger, just like how the math is going to get harder and harder when you get older and older. Math is hard enough. Not learning basic math facts would make it even harder. Adults are supposed to use calculators because they have already learned how to do their basic math facts. They also need a calculator for their jobs, unlike kids.

The consequence of calculator use is that kids do not get to learn their basic math facts in calculator use. The USA is under average at math and science. This is because of calculator use. The USA also gives less school hours and days in the year.  The USA has less than 180 days in a school year. People in the Singapore curriculum can use calculators because they know how to do the basic math facts. What is the point of teaching someone how to do math if they forget how to do it later? It is like the story where the guy catches fish for the man, but the man still doesn’t learn how to catch fish. Christina L. Sheets Wallace, in her NE Math in the Middle Institute Partnership Action Research Project Report in partial fulfillment of the MAT Degree Department of Mathematics University of Nebraska-Lincoln July, said that her students between 7th and 12th grades had lowered their grades on tests because of excessive calculator use.

Calculators have a negative effect on kids who don’t know their basic math facts.  It makes math harder than it needs to be. Calculators are mostly for adults to use in their jobs. Next time you see a kid use a calculator to do their homework, stop them.

The Importance of Space Exploration

Space exploration, just flashy photos and flags? If you look closer than your or your parents’ black and white autographed photo, you will see that it has a much more purposeful purpose. Space exploration actually benefits the environment and the population, and it allows important new scientific discoveries to be made.

Space exploration would benefit the environment. If we moved our dirty factories to another planet, this would reduce Earth pollution and provide a lower-cost alternative to building completely non-polluting factories. Also, space exploration may allow for better sites for greener living. For example, we could find a planet with more direct sunlight and a heat-only ozone layer. Or we could find a planet with natural cave tunnels for transit systems and cities so that no machinery would have to be brought to delve the cities. Space exploration might allow for environmental supplements to be pumped through to Earth so that we could still enjoy the environment but with less maintenance.

Space exploration could help the population. Space exploration could do this by finding new planets for the world to go to in an emergency or if the population gets too large for Earth to handle. There are probably dozens of planets with all the essentials of what we need — water, air, sunlight, and oxygen. In this way, space exploration could help the population. Finally, if you’re just ever yearning to go on a vacation, space exploration is very important to find new vacay destinations to get to if ever they are needed.

Space exploration could lead to important new scientific discoveries. For example, it could lead to the discovery of a new alien nation to be represented in the United Nations, or another tribe/nation of humans for us to connect with on a new Earth, or maybe one that is in need of our aid for creating a better government with freer rights. This would create the “United Intersolar Nations (UIN)” or, with the proper advancements the “United Republic Of Galactic Nations (URGN). Also, we could find planets that are empty, on which we could perform potentially harmful new science experiments with no casualties. This is how space exploration could lead to critical scientific discoveries.

Overall, space exploration is one of those things that just popped up, took hold and led the way to new greatness – the greatness of better science, more sustainable living, and happier lives. That’s why we should all promote space exploration. All of us should be those annoying salesmen we shoo from our doors in the morning. A number of people have come to agree with this fact, and in 2013 applications to live on Mars began. Even now we are developing those ships, for in all of our hearts there lies a simple yearning for the stars. So take action! Move! And send in your application today!